The double-declining balance (DDB) method is a type of declining balance method that instead uses double the normal depreciation rate. The two most common accelerated depreciation methods are double-declining balance and the sum of the years’ digits. Here’s a depreciation guide and overview of the double-declining balance method. Depreciation is the process by which you decrease the value of your assets over their useful life.

Under the double declining balance method the 10% straight line rate is doubled to 20%. However, the 20% is multiplied times the fixture’s book value at the beginning of the year instead of the fixture’s original cost. Double declining balance depreciation allows for higher depreciation expenses in early years and lower expenses as an asset nears the end of its life. Current book value is the asset’s net value at the start of an accounting period, calculated by deducting the accumulated depreciation from the cost of the fixed asset. Residual value is the estimated salvage value at the end of the useful life of the asset.

For example, if an asset has a useful life of 10 years (i.e., Straight-line rate of 10%), the depreciation rate of 20% would be charged on its carrying value. We now have the necessary inputs to build our accelerated depreciation schedule. The prior statement tends to be true for most fixed assets due to normal “wear and tear” from any consistent, constant usage. However, it’s not as easy to calculate, and you must refigure your depreciation expense each period.

## How to Calculate Declining Balance Depreciation

Vehicles fall under the five-year property class according to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The straight-line depreciation percentage is, therefore, 20%—one-fifth of the difference between the purchase price and the salvage value of the vehicle each year. The four methods described above are for managerial and business valuation purposes. In year 5, companies often switch to straight-line depreciation and debit Depreciation Expense and credit Accumulated Depreciation for \$6,827 (\$40,960/6 years) in each of the six remaining years.

• You calculate it based on the difference between your cost basis in the asset—purchase price plus extras like sales tax, shipping and handling charges, and installation costs—and its salvage value.
• A company estimates an asset’s useful life and salvage value (scrap value) at the end of its life.
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When the \$80,000 is multiplied by 20% the result is \$16,000 of depreciation for Year 2. If the double-declining depreciation rate is 40%, the straight-line rate of depreciation shall be its half, i.e., 20%. The carrying value of an asset decreases more quickly in its earlier years under the straight line depreciation compared to the double-declining method.

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The reason is that it causes the company’s net income in the early years of an asset’s life to be lower than it would be under the straight-line method. Accelerated depreciation techniques charge a higher amount of depreciation in the earlier years of an asset’s how to calculate annual income life. One way of accelerating the depreciation expense is the double decline depreciation method. However, note that eventually, we must switch from using the double declining method of depreciation in order for the salvage value assumption to be met.

## How Does the Double Declining Balance Depreciation Method Work?

‘Inc.’ in a company name means the business is incorporated, but what does that entail, exactly? Alternatively, you wouldn’t depreciate inexpensive items that are only useful in the short term. Units of production depreciation is based on how many items a piece of equipment can produce. We believe everyone should be able to make financial decisions with confidence. Therefore, it is more suited to depreciating assets with a higher degree of wear and tear, usage, or loss of value earlier in their lives.

Therefore, the book value of \$51,200 multiplied by 20% will result in \$10,240 of depreciation expense for Year 4. DDB depreciation is less advantageous when a business owner wants to spread out the tax benefits of depreciation over the useful life of a product. This is preferable for businesses that may not be profitable yet and therefore may not be able to capitalize on greater depreciation write-offs, or businesses that turn equipment over quickly.

## Analyze the Income Statement

In the final year, the asset will be further depreciated by \$2000, ignoring the rate of depreciation. This is because, unlike the straight-line method, the depreciation expense under the double-declining method is not charged evenly over the asset’s useful life. Due to the accelerated depreciation expense, a company’s profits don’t represent the actual results because the depreciation has lowered its net income. An asset for a business cost \$1,750,000, will have a life of 10 years and the salvage value at the end of 10 years will be \$10,000. You calculate 200% of the straight-line depreciation, or a factor of 2, and multiply that value by the book value at the beginning of the period to find the depreciation expense for that period. With our straight-line depreciation rate calculated, our next step is to simply multiply that straight-line depreciation rate by 2x to determine the double declining depreciation rate.

## Example of DDB Depreciation

Double declining balance is useful for assets, such as vehicles, where there is a greater loss in value upfront. Additionally, it more quickly provides your business with a greater deprecation deduction on your taxes. To calculate DDB depreciation, you first need to calculate the straight-line depreciation rate. For example, if an asset has a useful life of 5 years, the straight-line depreciation rate would be 20%. At the beginning of the second year, the fixture’s book value will be \$80,000, which is the cost of \$100,000 minus the accumulated depreciation of \$20,000.

Accordingly, higher amount of depreciation is charged during the early years of the asset as compared to the later stages. Accountingo.org aims to provide the best accounting and finance education for students, professionals, teachers, and business owners. This can make profits seem abnormally low, but this isn’t necessarily an issue if the business continues to buy and depreciate new assets on a continual basis over the long term. Since public companies are incentivized to increase shareholder value (and thus, their share price), it is often in their best interests to recognize depreciation more gradually using the straight-line method.

## Declining Depreciation vs. the Double-Declining Method

GAAP guidelines highlight several separate, allowable methods of depreciation that accounting professionals may use. A variation on this method is the 150% declining balance method, which substitutes 1.5 for the 2.0 figure used in the calculation. The 150% method does not result in as rapid a rate of depreciation at the double declining method. This method is more difficult to calculate than the more traditional straight-line method of depreciation.

However, a fixed rate of depreciation is applied just as in case of straight line method. This rate of depreciation is twice the rate charged under straight line method. Thus, this method leads to an over depreciated asset at the end of its useful life as compared to the anticipated salvage value.

Depreciation accounts for decreases in the value of a company’s assets over time. In the United States, accountants must adhere to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in calculating and reporting depreciation on financial statements. GAAP is a set of rules that includes the details, complexities, and legalities of business and corporate accounting.

Double-declining depreciation charges lesser depreciation in the later years of an asset’s life. It is important to note that we apply the depreciation rate on the full cost rather than the depreciable cost (cost minus salvage value). But before we delve further into the concept of accelerated depreciation, we’ll review some basic accounting terminology. Remember, in straight line depreciation, salvage value is subtracted from the original cost. If there was no salvage value, the beginning book balance value would be \$100,000, with \$20,000 depreciated yearly.